Full Reduplication in Persian Language: A Corpus Based Study




Reduplication is one of the productive morphological processes which have been studied inclusively in different languages and in the frame of different linguistic theories (Generative Grammar, Optimality Theory and Minimalist Program). Now with the emergence and growth of corpus linguistics and corpus based studies, morphological processes of this kind could be studied and conducted more accurately. Most of the morphological studies and morphologists have referred to reduplication process in their studies and it’s considered as one of the universals of world’s languages which represent different semantic or syntactic properties in most of the languages (Stolz 2008). Reduplication has been studied in two kinds: Full and partial reduplication ( Shaghaghi 1389, Haspelmath 2002, Bauer 2003). Full reduplication is to repeat a base known as reduplicated element fully and partial reduplication is to add an element to the beginning or end of the one of the bases. In this paper we have studied the full reduplication in Persian so that we can get the dominant forms, meanings and the semantic properties of the reduplicated base. In order to achieve such results we needed to choose a perfect and acceptable corpus in the Persian language, so the authors chose Dehkhoda Medium Persian Dictionary. First of all the entire corpus was searched for the full reduplicated forms and then all of these forms were recorded along with their meanings and parts of speech. On the whole 299 reduplicated forms were extracted and categorized according to their meaning, form and the semantic properties of the reduplicated element. After investigating the extracted words, interesting results were seen. The results show that except the sounds which are among the common forms of the reduplicated structures, the dominant form in these structures are adverbs and in terms of the meaning, the dominant meaning is paucity and most of the structures are formed out of meaningful elements. Another point is that even the meaningless elements have been used in forming full reduplications and in some cases the produced meaning is irrelevant and new. The number of sounds is one third of the whole extracted forms, sounds which some of them are also meaningful. The results of this study could be helpful in teaching Persian language, building bilingual corpuses as well as facilitating Machine translation and lifting the problems on its way. A major use of the built corpus in this study, the corpus of full reduplications in Persian would be very useful in enhancing the current Persian net words.