Representing Properties and Relationships between Entities of Creative Works in Schema.org Based on Library Reference Model (LRM)

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Abstract

This paper aims to improve the functionality of attribute properties and relationship properties between the entities of CreativeWorks of Schema.org by representing them in Library Reference Model (LRM) based on the content analysis method. The research community consisted of properties (attributes and relationships) of the book’s entity from the subset of CreativeWorks of Schema.org. A checklist based on entities, attributes and relationships in LRM was used for checking correspondence with the properties of book’s entity in Schema. org by structured observation method. To this end, each property of book in Schema.org was compared with the attributes and relationships in LRM and the most appropriate of them identified and extracted. The findings show that the properties ‘author’, ‘fileformat’, ‘encoding’, ‘associated media’, from CreativeWorks and ‘seeks’ and ‘gender’ from Person in Schema.org did not match to any attributes and relationships. LRM is a conceptual and high level model and deals with the bibliographic context entities, their properties and relationships at the highest level regardless of the four groups of standards in the field of knowledge organization (content standards, metadata standards, data exchanging standards, and formatting standards). So, these attributes should be considered in content and metadata standards. In LRM there are not any equivalents for roles of creators because it is independent from the four standards mentioned and there is the possibility of adding roles based on the policy of libraries or information centers. In other entities which was checked in this research: book, organization and thing, all properties fitted with attributes or relationships in LRM due to its comprehensive and general attitude of all. LRM has a complete view of the relationships between entities, these relationships are being narrated, and are identified in accordance with the bibliographic context, while in Schema.org many relationships between entities are not appropriate for the target context. The Shema.org should include properties that can cover relationships appropriate to any context. Considering the recommendations of the conceptual models of the cultural heritage context in determining and developing the properties, especially the relationships between entities by Schema. org, its deficiencies in the functionality in the data environment will be resolved and its applicability will be improved.

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