Identifying the Capabilities of Expert Systems and Chatbots in Libraries: A Systematic Review



Aim: The number of libraries utilizing smart computers and software to provide different services is unprecedentedly increasing worldwide. Librarians and informants have also attempted to use AI technologies such as expert systems, chatbots, and other smart services to improve and upgrade the quality and quantity of services. Therefore, the present study focused on identifying and introducing the capabilities and applications of expert systems and chatbots for library services.
Methodology: This study has been conducted in a systematic review method with a seven-step process by Wright et al. These steps in the systematic method are: determining the research question and then the protocol or contract for performing the task, searching for texts, extracting data, evaluating quality, analyzing data and presenting the results, and finally, interpreting the results. Then keywords in this field were searched in international (i.e., Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar) and domestic (i.e., Magiran, Scientific Information Database/SID, and CIVILICA) databases regardless of the time interval. Finally, 34 articles were selected.
Results: The review of 34 related studies revealed that expert systems are used as technical, general, and managerial services in libraries. However, due to the nature of chatbots that are used for smart conversations and communications as human interactions, various studies have so far identified and introduced the applications of these chatbots only in the general services section of libraries while in reference services and interviews in particular.
Conclusions: Eventually, librarians are expected to become familiar with the capabilities and applications of expert systems and chatbots, as well as participating in the design and application phase of expert systems for libraries. It is further suggested that further studies investigate the role and application of chatbots in the technical and managerial services of libraries to provide a basis for designing these intelligent systems for all library services.


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