The Effect of Open Peer Review on Reviewers’ Behavior: a Scope Review

Document Type : Original Article

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Abstract

The role of article publishing in academic and professional promotion is unprecedentedly increasing worldwide and researchers demand more transparency in the process of reviewing articles. Emergence of the Open Science movement led to the implementation of a new model of  peer review called "Open Peer Review"(OPR) in some journals. OPR is based on the values of "openness" and "transparency". The most obvious feature of OPR is reviewers’ open identity and open report. These characteristics have influenced the reviewers' behavior and the present study was conducted with the aim of identifying them.
This study has been conducted in a Scope Review method based on the six-step framework by "Levace et al." and during it, after determining the purpose and questions of the research, 21 articles were selected, and the data were extracted, categorized and analyzed.
The review revealed that, behaviors such as willingness to review, the review quality; time duration; bias towards issues such as gender, country, etc.; recommendation; the tone and volume of the review report, and requesting authors to cite their earlier works have been identified. "Quality", "recommendation", "bias", and "review time" were the most frequent behaviors studied, respectively. The identified behaviors were influenced by the characteristics of the open identity and open report.
Eventually, OPR has been effective in increasing negative behaviors such as reducing the tendency to review, bias, asking authors for citing their works, and increasing the time of review. However, it has not had a negative effect on the review quality, the tone and volume of the review report, and, sometimes, it has improved them.
 

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