To Be or not to Be on Social Media: Analysis Using Tragedy of Commons

نویسندگان

1 Symbiosis Institute of International Business,Symbiosis International Deemed University, Pune, India

2 Department of Management Sciences, SP Pune University, Pune, India

3 Department of M SP Pune University, Pune, India

چکیده

 Social media websites like Twitter and Facebook have become a treasure trove of data. Even today, people have not been able to fully comprehend the consequences, both positive and negative, of being on these websites. We have modeled the risks associated with such websites as a function of the population, i.e., the number of accounts present, along the lines of the tragedy of commons. We have tracked the variations between the average Strogartz Watts local clustering coefficient, the variance of Strogartz Watts local clustering coefficient and the global clustering coefficient as the number of accounts in a database increases. Regarding the average local and global clustering coefficient, researchers observed an initial phase of rapid increase followed by a phase of a continuous relatively smaller increase in their values. The variance of the average local clustering coefficient shows an initial phase of significant variation followed by a phase of continuous reduction in its value. Thus, the increase in the population size increases the transitivity of the network, increasing the risk associated with data being leaked via the website. The purpose of this research study is to simulate the social media connections and identify the application of the concept of ‘tragedy of commons’ in the social media domain. The researchers have also tried to look at insights obtained from simulations from a network theory perspective. The scope of this research study is to look at the way the connections are made on social media depending on the common interests of the people who use social media platforms. Using network theory, the researchers have tried to find out the connections structures. The researchers have used a simulation approach using a program that was written in C language on a UNIX system. Additional accounts to a hypothetical database were simulated using this program.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

To Be or not to Be on Social Media: Analysis Using Tragedy of Commons

نویسندگان [English]

  • Madhura Ranade 1
  • Aniruddha Joshi 2
  • Neha Patvardhan 1
  • Paritosh Bedekar 3
1 Symbiosis Institute of International Business,Symbiosis International Deemed University, Pune, India
3 Department of M SP Pune University, Pune, India
چکیده [English]

Social media websites like Twitter and Facebook have become a treasure trove of data. Even today, people have not been able to fully comprehend the consequences, both positive and negative, of being on these websites. We have modeled the risks associated with such websites as a function of the population, i.e., the number of accounts present, along the lines of the tragedy of commons. We have tracked the variations between the average Strogartz Watts local clustering coefficient, the variance of Strogartz Watts local clustering coefficient and the global clustering coefficient as the number of accounts in a database increases. Regarding the average local and global clustering coefficient, researchers observed an initial phase of rapid increase followed by a phase of a continuous relatively smaller increase in their values. The variance of the average local clustering coefficient shows an initial phase of significant variation followed by a phase of continuous reduction in its value. Thus, the increase in the population size increases the transitivity of the network, increasing the risk associated with data being leaked via the website. The purpose of this research study is to simulate the social media connections and identify the application of the concept of ‘tragedy of commons’ in the social media domain. The researchers have also tried to look at insights obtained from simulations from a network theory perspective. The scope of this research study is to look at the way the connections are made on social media depending on the common interests of the people who use social media platforms. Using network theory, the researchers have tried to find out the connections structures. The researchers have used a simulation approach using a program that was written in C language on a UNIX system. Additional accounts to a hypothetical database were simulated using this program.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tragedy of Commons
  • Strogartz Watts Local Clustering Coefficient
  • Global Clustering Coefficient
  • Nash Equilibrium
Amedie, Jacob, “The Impact of Social Media on Society” (2015). Pop Culture Intersections. 2. https://scholarcommons.scu.edu/engl_176/2
Camp, L. J. (2011). Reconceptualizing the Role of Security User. Daedalus, 140(4), 93–107. https://doi.org/10.1162/DAED_a_00117 (Camp, 2011)
Christian Iaione, The Tragedy of Urban Roads: Saving Cities from Choking, Calling on Citizens to Combat Climate Change, 37 Fordham Urb. L.J. 889 (2010). Available at: https://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/ulj/vol37/iss3/7
Diekert, Florian. (2012). The Tragedy of the Commons from a Game-Theoretic Perspective. Sustainability. 4. 1776-1786. 10.3390/su4081776.
Elias, A. J., & Moraru, C. (Eds.). (2015). The Planetary Turn: Relationality and Geoaesthetics in the Twenty-First Century. Northwestern University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv3znz1s
Estrada, Ernesto. (2016). When local and global clustering of networks diverge. Linear Algebra and Its Applications. 488. 249-263. 10.1016/j.laa.2015.09.048.
Florian K. Dieckert The Tragedy of Commons from a Game-Theory Perspective August 2012
Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, 162(3859), 1243-1248. Available at http://www.jstor.org/stable/1724745.
Hardin, G. (1998). Extensions of; The Tragedy of the Commons; Science, 280(5364), 682 LP – 683. Available at, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.280.5364.682
Holland, P., & Leinhardt, S. (1971). Transitivity in Structural Models of Small Groups. Small Group Research, 2, 107 - 124.
Iaione, C. (2009). The Tragedy of Urban Roads: Saving Cities from Choking, Calling on Citizens to Combat Climate Change. Ssrn, 37(3). https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1357355
Jean, L. (2011). Camp Reconceptualizing the Role of the Security User the MIT Press 2011
Juszczyszyn, K. (2011). On analysis of complex network dynamics–changes in local topology. … Conference on …, 11. http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/18408/
Juszczyszyn, K., Musial, K. and Budka, M., 2011. On analysis of complex network dynamics – changes in local topology. The 17th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (SNA-KDD). (Unpublished)
Kay, C. E. (1997). The Ultimate Tragedy of Commons. Conservation Biology, 11(6), 1447–1448. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2387372
Liaropoulos, A. N. (2016). Reconceptualising Cyber Security: Safeguarding Human Rights in the Era of Cyber Surveillance. Int. J. Cyber Warf. Terror., 6(2), 32–40.       
https://doi.org/10.4018/IJCWT.2016040103
McWhinnie, Stephanie. (2009). The Tragedy of the Commons in International Fisheries: An Empirical Examination. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 57. 321-333. 10.1016/j.jeem.2008.07.008.
Musial, Katarzyna & Budka, Marcin & Juszczyszyn, Krzysztof. (2013). Creation and growth of online social network: How do social networks evolve?. World Wide Web. 16. 10.1007/s11280-012-0177-1.
Nagle, Frank. (2018). The Digital Commons: Tragedy or Opportunity? A Reflection on the 50th Anniversary of Hardin’s Tragedy of the Commons. Harvard Business School Strategy Unit Working Paper No. 19-060.
O’Gorman, M. (2012). Global Warming: A Tragedy of the Commons. SSRN Electronic Journal, 32. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1653947
O’Gorman, Maebh, “Global Warming: A Tragedy of the Commons” (2010). Comparative Research in Law & Political Economy. Research Paper No. 32/2010. http://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/clpe/99
Paavola, Jouni. (2011). Climate change: the ultimate ‘tragedy of the commons’?. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.361.6500&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Rébillé, Y., & Richefort, L. (2015). Influence and social tragedy in networks. Revue d’Economie Politique, 126(6), 811–833. https://doi.org/10.3917/redp.256.0811
Xu, C., Ryan, S., Prybutok, V., & Wen, C. (2012). It is not for fun: An examination of social network site usage. Information & Management, 49(5), 210–217. Available at          https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2012.05.001
Yann, Rebille & Richfort, Lionel. (2015). Influence and Tragedy in Networks Editions Dalloz December 2015