ملاحظات معماری سازمانی بانک‌ها در عصر تحول دیجیتال

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران ، تهران، ایران

2 گروه مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات دانشگاه تهران ، تهران، ایران

3 گروه مدیریت صنعتی دانشگاه تهران ، تهران، ایران

4 گروه مهندسی نرم افزار دانشگاه شهید بهشتی ، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در دنیای تغییراتِ مستمر، تحول دیجیتال به موضوعی ضروری و به عامل کلیدیِ بقای سازمان‌ها تبدیل شده است. این موضوع نه‌تنها تغییری فناورانه، بلکه تغییراتی بنیادین در تمامی ابعاد و به بیان ساده تحول کسب‌وکار است. بانک‌ها مانند سایر سازمان‌ها در عصر دیجیتال با ویژگی‌های متفاوتی مانند ظهور فناوری‌های تحول‌آفرین و مدل‌های کسب‌وکار جدید، حضور در اکوسیستم‌ها و افزایش اهمیت بالای تجربه مشتری روبه‌رو هستند. جهت بازنگری معماری سازمانی با رویکرد تحول دیجیتال لازم است ویژگی‌های متمایزکنندة بانک دیجیتال با بانک‌های سنتی به‌خوبی شناسایی شوند؛ چرا که این ویژگی‌ها بر انتخاب رویکرد چارچوب معماری سازمانی و همچنین مکتب فکری معماری سازمانی تأثیرگذار هستند. در این پژوهش ابتدا با روش مرور نظام‌مند مبانی نظری 284 مقاله با کلمات کلیدی مرتبط با بانکداری دیجیتال مورد بررسی قرار گرفت تا ویژگی‌های متمایزکنندة این بانک با بانک‌های سنتی به‌دست آید. جهت شناسایی شاخص‌ها و دسته‌بندی آن‌ها با استفاده از مرور نظام‌مند، افزون‌ بر پژوهشگر (کدگذار 1)، توسط یک فرد متخصص مرور سیستماتیک (کدگذار 2) نیز انجام شد. با توجه به مقدار ضریب کاپای 804/0، شش ویژگی کلان متمایزکنندة بانک دیجیتال عبارت‌اند از: مشتری‌محور، سرویس‌محور، مبتنی ‌بر اکوسیستم، انطباق با فناوری‌های دیجیتال، استراتژی تحول دیجیتال، و پلتفرم‌محور که در قالب 18 ویژگی خُرد کدگذاری شده‌اند. برای یافتن مکتب فکری معماری سازمانی و چارچوب معماری سازمانی متناسب با بانک دیجیتال، پرسشنامه‌ای با جامعة آماری 27 نفر از خبرگان حوزه معماری سازمانی و تحول دیجیتال طراحی شد. نتایج حاصل از پرسشنامه با روش تصمیم‌گیری چندشاخصه «سوارا-واسپاس» مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان میدهد که برای پیاده‌سازی معماری بانک دیجیتال با توجه به ویژگی‌های کلان و خُرد متمایزکنندة این بانک، لازم است مکتب اکولوژیکال و رویکرد چارچوب سرویس‌محور انتخاب شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Banks in the Age of Digital Transformation: Considerations for Enterprise Architecture

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Shiri 1
  • Mehdi ShamiZanjani 2
  • Mohammad Abooyee Ardakan 3
  • Fereidoon Shams Aliee 4
1
2
3
4
چکیده [English]

In the world of continuous changes, digital transformation has emerged as an inevitable factor for survival of organizations. Not only it is a technology change, but also is a radical change in all aspects and in other words is a business transformation. Banks like other organizations in digital era are facing new features namely the emergence of disruptive technologies and new business models, presence in ecosystems and importance of customer experience. In order for revising an enterprise architecture with digital transformation approach, it is required to determine the distinguishing characteristics of digital banks and traditional banks. The reason is that such characters affect the enterprise architecture framework approach and also the school of thought of enterprise architecture.
In the present research, we applied the mixture of quantitative and qualitative research method. Firstly, using a systematic literature review, 284 papers with related keywords with digital bank were reviewed in order to extract the distinguishing features of this bank with traditional banks. In order for determining the indicators and their categories using the SLR, alongside a researcher (coder 1) is done by another expert of SLR (coder 2). Considering the KAPA coefficient 804%, six major features of digital banks are as follows: customer-centric experience, service oriented, based on ecosystem, alignment with digital technologies, digital transformation strategy, and platform oriented codded as 18 micro features. For finding the enterprise architecture school of thought and enterprise architecture framework aligned with digital banks, a questionnaire was designed by a group of 27 experts of enterprise architecture and digital transformation. The results of findings were analyzed using SWARA-WASPAS method.
The results show that by considering the macro and micro characteristics of digital banks, in order for implementing a digital bank architecture, considering the distinguishing characters of the bank, it is essential to select ecological school of thought and service-oriented framework.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Digital Transformation
  • Enterprise Architecture
  • Digital Banking
  • Enterprise Architecture Framework
  • Enterprise Architectures Schools of Thought
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